The climate of Earth is changing from the beginning of 4.5 billion years ago. Climate is the long changes in the environment. Climate has not a single dependent factor but it includes a variety of elements that are changing it.Such as solar radiations, air masses, pressure systems, topography, latitude, altitude, and distance from the sea and the ocean currents. By maintaining these factors, we are actually maintaining the climate and also our crop production. Pakistan is basically 28th most affected country by the climate change and the crop productivity is declining day by day.
Factors affecting the climate:
There are many factors on which climate is dependent on. Greenhouse gases, aerosols, land use change human activities, variation in the sun energy reaching Earth and changes in the reflectivity effect of solar radiations. Greenhouse gases include carbondioxide,methane,water vapours,ozone,nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons(CFC’s).Water vapors are the most abundant GHG in the atmosphere but it can’t possess any harmful effect to the climate.Carbondioxide is the least present but it can have a harmful effect. Methane is the 2nd most abundant GHG in the atmoshere.It can absorb more heat than carbondioxide.These GHGs actually raise the temperature of the environment and hence of climate.
Atmospheric aerosols absorb and scatter solar and infrared radiations. They can change the properties of the clouds. Deforestation in terms of land use can have damaging effect on soil properties. These things must be monitored by adopting new technology.
Factors affecting the farming:
There are many social-economic and environmental factors affecting the crop production in Pakistan.
- Social and economic factors:
Labor is cheap in India but it is expensive in Japan and China .Japanese are using machines to do their most of work. In country like Pakistan, machinery is the expensive thing and labor is somehow expensive. Capital (finance), the money farmer has to invest in their farms. The greater the capital, the more is the crop productivity. Technology is also the main factor in yield. Green houses, with computerized controlled technology and genetic engineering have a great impact on crop productivity. Marketing can have great impact on crop productivity. The main factor in farming is the government. If government offers training and finance to the farmers, farming can be enhanced. Easy transportation facilities widens the farming.
- Environmental factors:
Climate, relief and soil are most important factors that can determine crop productivity. Increase in temperature and greater rainfall than required, have a deleterious effect on crop productivity. Low lands are good for crops. Lands with greater slopes are not good for machinery. Soil fertility also plays a role as more is the fertile soil, more will be the crop production.
Climate impact on crop production in Pakistan:
Earth’s temperature is rising 1.5 F since 1880.The effect of increasing temperature is seen in the recent days as Chitral is facing flood due to melting of glaciers in Himalayas.GHGs are emitted up to 30% in Pakistan. Crop production falls down up to 50 % in Pakistan but in Europe, it is expected to grow up to 25 % due to hydrologic conditions. So, reduced GHGs is the target to enhance crop production. Climate change can affect quality and quantity, soil drainage and soil erosion and crop diversity and food security. The increased intrusion of saline water in Indus delta is affecting the coastal agriculture. The crop production will be decreased up to 30% in Africa and in Asia, it will be up to 10%.So, Climate has a great impact on crop production.
Pakistan is a developing country. Pakistan has better irrigation system. She must beware of the changes caused due to climate. Climate has great impact on crop productivity. There are many factors that can affect crop productivity like gene house effect, human activities, ocean currents, etc. Increased GHGs emission, greater temperature and air pollutants result in the decreased crop productivity. By decreasing such threats, crop productivity can be enhanced.
Better use of finance, capital and technology can result in the better crop productivity.
Increase in temperature of Earth due to human activities results in melting of glaciers. This increase in temperature results in low crop production in Pakistan. Saline water climate at the coastal areas of Pakistan results in less crops rate. These things must be in account in order to improve crop rate. By the use of greenhouse computerized controlled programme,flood monitoring system,GHGs reduced emission technology and genetic engineering of seeds, crops production can be enhanced at a greater rate.